結論からいうと、韓国人女性から証言を集め、その中から信頼できそうな１９の証言を選び、１９９３年に’証言集’（英名タイトル：True Stories of the Korean Confort Women: The Korean Council for Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, by Keith Howerd, 1996)の調査と出版に携わったソウル大学の名誉教授、安乗直は、２００６年韓国のニュース番組で次のように語っていることです。
June 20, 2014, Drafting of the Kono statement Background Report was published in Japan.
The Background Report is very interesting.
Everyone, please read whole report.
When you search, Please type in search box:
Details of Exchanges Between Japan and the Republic of Korea(ROK) Regarding the Comfort Women Issue
~From the Drafting of the Kono Statement to the Asian Women’s Fund~
The most interesting part is the ‘Asian Women’s Fund’ issue for former comfort women.
The Fund projects in the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Netherlands were implemented with the understanding and positive reception by the government and related groups of the respective country except South Korea.
In South Korea, seven former comfort women who received “atonement money” of 2 million yen, the source of which was donations from the private sector, and 3 million yen for medical and welfare projects, the source of which was government contributions (for a total of 5 million yen per person), plus a letter of apology signed by the Prime Minister of Japan and also other comfort women seeking to newly applied for the fund were being harassed by the victim support groups and Korean media.
The victim support groups in South Korea(Republic of Korea) thought the Fund as “payment for services” from private-sector organizations, and criticized the approach of the Government of Japan and the Fund.
Korean media and the victim support groups publicly mentioned the real names of the seven former comfort women and in addition, telephoned them and criticized them for receiving money from a “private-sector fund.”
Subsequently, parties related to the groups even visited the homes of the former comfort women who had newly declared that they would accept projects from the Fund in order to press them not to accept any “dirty money from Japan.”
In March 1998, the Kim Dae-jung administration was inaugurated and the Government of the ROK decided to provide “life-support fund” to the former comfort women instead of demanding state compensation from the Government of Japan.
The Government of the ROK decided that the former comfort women who had already received money from the Fund would not be eligible for the life-support fund, but explained that such policy is not intended to openly object the Fund nor a measure to criticize its activities.
Furthermore, during this period, the Government of the ROK stated that President Kim Dae-jung himself wanted any financial issues to be sorted out and was of the opinion that it should not become an issue between the two governments.
Furthermore, the ROK stated with feelings of sympathy towards the Fund, that it would be better for this issue of the Fund be put to an end so that it would not become an issue between the two governments.
Former Korean comfort women who received Fund (total number 61) said words of gratitude; one former comfort women said that she never thought that during her lifetime she would receive apologies from the Prime Minister and money, and that she came to fully understand the feelings of good will of Japanese people and wanted thank them very much.
Furthermore, another person needed money in order to have medical operations and decided to accept the “atonement money” by the Fund.
At the first, she did not want to meet a Fund representative, but the representative read the Prime Minister’s letter aloud to her, she raised her voice, broke down in tears, hugged the representative.
In this way, the Fund believed that the apology and remorse expressed by the Japanese Government and people were accepted, and contrary to the situation within the ROK, the Fund came to be appreciated by the former comfort women.
〔ナチス戦争犯罪と日本帝国政府の記録の各省庁作業班（The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group）ＩＷＧ 〕：クリントン政権時代に成立した「１９９８年ナチス戦争犯罪開示法」と「２０００年日本帝国政府開示法」に基づき、第２次大戦での日独両国の戦争犯罪の情報開示を徹底させる目的で２０００年に始まった調査。国防総省、国務省、中央情報局（ＣＩＡ）、連邦捜査局（ＦＢＩ）などの未公開の公式文書を点検し戦争犯罪に関する資料の公開を指示した。
２００７年４月の米国政府の慰安婦問題調査報告（Nazi War Crimes & Japanese Imperial Government Records ~Final Report to the United States Congress April 2007~ ）
を調査・分析したアメリカのジャーナリスト、マイケル・ヨン氏の調査結果が、アメリカ人の弁護士で日米で活躍するケント・ギルバート氏の Facebook に日米両語掲載されています。
Despite the best of intentions, Americans commenting on the troubled histry of Northeast Asia is a messy business fraught with danger for all sides involved. Doing so also ignores the reality that wartime history is being selectively and even cynically deployed as a political tool by Seoul.
Encouraging such sentiments by demanding further shows of Japanese remorse, rather than discouraging such nationalist rhetoric, is contributing to the problem, rather than helping to find a solution to a still troubled region.
Tension between these two countries is nothing new. Having been colonized by Japan from 1910-1945, modern Korean nationalism was founded on opposition to Japanese rule. Previous leaders in Roh Moo-hyun and Lee Mung-bak both experienced tense moments with Tokyo over the issue of history.
But current President Park Geun-hye has chosen to escalate these issues to an unprecedented level. Her insistance from the start of her term in early 2013 that progress in bilateral relations across any and all issues will depend on further demonstrations by the Abe government of sincere remorse over the past – without actually specifying what would fulfill such a demand – goes well beyond the demands of her predecessors.
This is not to argue that the pain in Korean society about Japanese wartime actions is contrived – it is real. But, one should contrast Seoul’s decision to use history as a weapon against contemporary Japan with the rest of the region – with the notable exceptions of China and North Korea.
Countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, and the U.S. have all suffered from the yoke of Japanese imperialism in the first half of the previous century. Wounds in these societies from those events, too, are still open and raw.
Even so, these countries have joined with others, such as India, in welcoming a more “can do” and “will do” strategic and diplomatic Japanese player, and are explicitly supporting Abe’s desire that Asia’s largest and most advanced economy (and America’s most important ally in the region to boot) play a more pro-active role in the region in particular. Significanyly, a July 2013 Pew Survey suggested that around 80% of the populations in these countries viwed Abe’s Japan favorably. Importantly, although governments in these countries do not attempt to suppress or deny memories of Japanese actions during the Second World War, they have shown no interest in inciting anti-Japanese sentiment in their respective societies. Reassured by a post-war Japan that has been a model international citizen for almost seven decades through its immense contributions to offering aid, capital, technology and its vast markets to the region, all these former adversaries see a confident and proactive Japan as an essential pillar of a stable and prosperous Asia in this century – and a check against an increasingly assertive China and an unpredictable North Korea.
In contrast, Seoul has encouraged and flattered domestic anti-Japanese sentiment, often leading to farcical outcomes. One recent illustration was in December 2013, when South Korean peacekeeping forces in Sudan faced an imminent threat from insurgents and issued a desperate call for more ammunition. Because Japan’s military was the only other force on the ground with the same calibre ammunition, Tokyo promptly authorized more than 10,000 bullets to be sent to the Koreans. But the gesture caused such a public uproar within South Korea that Seoul refused to accept the ammunition, subsequently accusing Japan of publicizing its largesse at South Korea’s expence. This was denied by Tokyo. But whatever the truth, the episode suggests that South Korean antipathy toward Japan trumps even the need to protect its own troops.
Finally, opening up the Pandra’s Box of recent history between the two countries will be embarrassing for not just Japan but also South Korea, whose closet is not without its own skeltons. One of them was revealed in official documents released in 2005 covering negotiations between Seoul and Tokyo in the lead-up to the 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations, which established normal diplomacy between the two countries.
The documents had been kept secret for forty years. During these negotiations, South Korea demanded $364 million in compensation for more than one million Koreans conscripted into the workforce and the millitary during the period of Japanese colonization from 1910-45. Japan proposed that it compensate victims directly. When the money arrived in the form of grants and soft loans from Tokyo, authoritarian leader Park Chung-hee(father of the current president) instead spent it on national economic development.
Understandably, Seoul is not eager for this snippet of history to be revisited.
SEOUL’S DECISION TO DEPLOY WARTIME HISTORY AS A WEAPON AGAINST ITS NEIGHBOR AND AN OBSTACLE AGAINST jAPAN PLAYING A MORE EXTENSIVE ROLE IN THE REGION IS MORE A POLITICAL DECISION THAT IS SELF-DEFEATING AND LESS A NOBLE ACT OF JUSTICE.
Americans ought to encourage Seoul to follow the example of the vast majority of Asian capitals in not forgetting the past, but refusing to allow it to be used to prevent a better future.
Dr. John Lee is a senior fellow at the Hudson institute in washington DC and an adjunct associate professor at the University of Sydney
偶然に Forbes Asia の記事で、英文で書かれた日本を擁護する記事を見つけたので、英語の分かるハーフの人たちに読んでもらえればと 思い、元の記事が削除される前に書き込みさせていただきました。
＊Did Korea Encourage Sex Work at US Bases?
BBC NEWS MAGAZINE
11/27/2014 By Stephen Evans(BBC News,Seoul)
More than 120 former prostitutes who worked near a US military base in South Korea are going to court to seek compensation from the Korean government. They say the authorities actively facilitated their work – and that the system has left them in poverty now that they are old.
For as long as armies have gathered in garrisons, ramshackle “camp-towns” have grown up around them. In South Korea, they reach right up to the walls of US bases – by night, they throb with music and neon, by day, they seem to recover from the night before.
They are now the scene of an intriguing legal dispute. More than 120 former prostitutes, who are ageing and poor, are suing not the American authorities but their own government, demanding compensation of $10,000(6,300 Pounds) each. Their argument is that the South Korean government facilitated their work in order to keep American forces happy.
In community centre next to the US base at Uijeongbu City in South Korea, a group of them gather to explain their case. “We worked all night long. What I want is for the Korean government to recognize that this a system that it created… and also compensation.”
Their argument is not that South Korea compelled them work as prostitutes – this is not a case of sexual slavery – but that by instituting a system of official and compulsory check-ups on their sexual health, it was complicit, and facilitated a system which now leaves them in poverty. It also, they say, gave them English lessons and courses in “Western etiquette”.
The women invariably say that they were driven to prostitution because they were poor, living in a very poor country. They applied for unspecified jobs and then found themselves in bars and brothels having to barrow from the owner, and thus became locked into the system.
“In 1972, I went to an employment placement centre and the counsellor asked me to stand up and sit down. He took a look at me and then promised me a job that would give me a place to stay and food to eat, so I would just be working and my room and board would be taken care of by my boss,” says one woman.
They also argue that there was tacit approval because the country needed foreign currency. The prostitutes were reviled as people but the dollars they earned were welcomed.
“There was this talk going round about earning dollars by working in the clubs, and that that would make you a patriot – somebody who was a hard-working Korean. We did earn a lot of dollars in the camp town,” one of the women tells me.
Their voices rise in anger and fall in sorrow as they relate their sad tales.
“I accepted a job and went to an establishment. As soon as I arrived I ran away. I ended up getting caught by the club owner and my club owner sold me off to another establishment and it was there that I took my first customer,” says one.
But their case is complex. It is true that the South Korean government set up clinics, but these replaced an unofficial network of doctors, some of them poorly qualified, who certified women as free of sexually transmitted diseases. The government is not commenting on the case but it might argue, when the case comes to court, that setting up clinics wasn’t facilitating prostitution but trying to protect the women involved.
There were certainly fears in the 1970s that Washington would pull troops out of South Korea.
“I think where the South Korean government has some culpability is that in the 1970s some Korean officials from the central government did go to these camp-towns and try to persuade these women who were working as sex workers to co-operate with the US military command,” says Dr. Kathy Moon(Korean American) of the Brookings Institution, who wrote Sex Among Allies, the definitive study of prostitution and the US military in South Korea.
“The priority was to keep the US military command happy so they would stay in Korea because there was a threat of pull-outs of US troops.”
The priority in the clinics, Moon says, was “maintaining the health and well being of the US troops not the Korean women”, The staff were only interested in the women’s sexual health, and did not provide treatment for other illnesses.
Dr.Kathy Moon(Korean American) is at pains to point out that, unlike South Korea’s World War Two “comfort women” – who were forced to become sex slaves by the Japanese military – many of these women took a decision to work as prostitutes, however reluctantly. They then become trapped, however.
“Once these women were there, they couldn’t get out easily. They were raped continuously – raped by the manager,” she says.
Anything the bar owner deemed necessary for a woman to attract GI’s to sell sex-make-up, clothing, some decoration in their hut rooms – was rented out to the women. If the women were ill or if they needed assistance to pay for a funeral for a family member, they would borrow from the bar owner. All of these expenses became part of their debt and unless you paid off this debt you couldn’t leave.”
Over the years, the attitude of the US military has changed. There is now what US Forces Korea calls “Zero tolerance” of servicemen using prostitutes. Military police patrol red light areas, going into bars to seek transgressors. Prostitution has also been illegal in South Korea SINCE 2004(it was legal before 2004) – though nobody doubts that it continues.
The nature of the trade has changed too. When South Korea was a poor country, South Korean women were the sellers of sex around the bases. But today, now that South Korea is an increasingly affluent society, it’s largely women from Russia and the Philippines who make up the workforce.
That doesn’t diminish the pain and anxiety of the elderly women who now face a comfortless old age. Jang Young-mi, in her late 60s, lives in a grim single bedroom with her three dogs. She worked in a camp-town for two decades and now has only poverty to show for it. “Maybe because I lived for so long with American soldiers, I can’t fit in with Koreans,” she says. “Why did my life have to turn out this way?’
＊Korean’s War Brothel Diaries Offer New Details
The Japan Times 08/13/2013
Seoul – The diaries of a Korean man who worked in wartime brothels for Japanese soldiers in Burma and Singapore during World War 2 have been found in South Korea.
Researchers believe the diaries, the first ever found that were written by someone who worked at a “comfort station,” are authentic and provide actual details of the brothels and lives of “comfort women.”
They also show that the Imperial Japanese Army was involved in the management of the facilities, which the Japanese government acknowledged in a 1993 statement by then – Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono.
The Korean man worked as a clerk in the brothels. Born in 1905, he died in 1979 before the comfort women became a thorny issue between Japan and South Korea.
A South Korean museum obtained the diaries covering 1922 to 1957, with several years missing, from a secondhand bookstore.
Ahn Byung-jik, a professor emeritus at Seoul National University, examined the portion for 1943 and 1944 jointly with two japanese researchers,Kyoto University professor Kazuo Hori and Kobe university professor Kan Kimura. Their joint research will be published in South Korea in the near future.
One passage describes how two prostitutes who had quit because of their marriages had been ordered to return by army logistics. He also said he submitted daily reports to the logistics command.
The man noted that the manager of one of the comfort stations was a Korean from Chungju in central part of the peninsula.
He wrote that he had withdrawn 600 yen from a
prostitute’s account and remitted it at a post office on her behalf, indicating that comfort women were paid.
In a glimpse of their daily lives, the man wrote that “comfort women went to see a movie screened by the railroad unit.”
The diaries are “highly credible,” Kimura said, noting there was little possibility of alterations because the man died before comfort women issue became a source of contention.
His accounts conflict with assertions by some Japanese that comfort women were involved in a purely private business, and by some South Koreans that the women were completely enslaved.
A portion is missing for 1942, when many girls and women were believed to have been recruited. But what he wrote in later years describes events that are believed to have happened in 1942.
“On this day last year, I boarded a ship at Busan port and took the first step of my southbound journey,” the man wrote in the entry for July 10, 1943.
On April 6, 1944, he wrote, “When a comfort team left Busan two years ago, Mr. Tsumura, who came as head of the fourth comfort corps, was working in a fresh food association.”
The diaries “confirmed that the fourth comfort corps had existed,” Ahn said, “It has also become certain that the Japanese government had organized comfort teams and took women to the frontline.”
But ahn is skeptical about the view that the Japanese military and police took women by force from the Korean peninsula. “I do not think such a thing was possible,” Ahn said, noting that Korea at the time was “a well-ordered society, although it was a colony.”
The 1993 Kono statement said that the Imperial Japanese Army” was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women.”
In the statement, the Japanese government also extended its “sincere apologies and remorse to all those…who suffered immeasurable pain and incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women.”
In 1995, Japan set up a fund to support former comfort women, called the Asian Women’s fund, with financial support from the government.
Japan’s official position is that the comfort women issue has been resolved because South Korea gave up all individual claims under a 1965 pact on the normalization of relations between the two nations. Seoul does not consider the comfort women issue to be covered by the pact.
President Park Should Publicly Apologize for South Korea’s Sexual Violence in Vietnam
Fox News Opinion – October 13, 2015 by Norm Coleman
This week’s state visit by South Korean President Park Geun-hye presents an opportunity to assess the strength of the alliance between our two countries. At the same time, it presents an obligation to challenge our ally when its behavior does not fully align with American values.
The United States as a country has a strong legacy of embracing mistakes and atoning for them. President Park should embrace this uniquely American value and publicly apologize to the thousands of Vietnamese women who were forcibly raped by troops under her father’s command during the Vietnam War.
Forty years ago, Park Chung-hee the current president’s father and a former general, led over 320,000 of his U.S.-allied troops into the War in Vietnam. Throughout the war, South Korean soldiers violently raped and sexually assaulted thousands of young women, some as young as 13 and 14 years of age. Many of these women bore children as a result of these assaults. Today, between 5,000 and 30,000 children of mixed Korean-Vietnamese ancestry, called the “Lai Dai Han,” live at the margins of Vietnamese society.
When my good friend Senator John McCain recounts the horrors he survived during his captivity in Vietnam, he often talks about the deep emotional and physical scars war leaves on the lives of those impacted by it. What happened to these women, so many of whom lost their innocence at the hands of South Korean soldiers, is one of the great untold tragedies of the Vietnam War.
Since my time as a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, I have always fought and stood up for those who have been victims of systemic violence around the world. These women, the mothers of the Lai Dai Han, deserve to have the world bear witness to their testimonies. After decades of raising their children and grandchildren in the face of tremendous adversity, they deserve to be heard.
As a father, I can only imagine the heartache and pain these poor young women and their families had to endure. We cannot erase the memory of what happened — but an acknowledgement by the South Korean government of their suffering and an apology for the sexual violence perpetrated by their troops, would be a welcome step in easing the pain.
President Park is one of the most powerful women in the world. Certainly, it is within her power to extend a full and public apology for the crimes committed by her father’s soldiers against to many innocent women. Failing to make such an unequivocal apology would only undermine President Park’s moral authority as she presses Japan to apologize for the sexual violence perpetrated against South Korean “comfort women” during World War 2.
Earlier this week, I added my name to a petition started by Nguyen Thi Bach Tuyet on Change.org calling on President Park to apologize to the victims of South Korea’s systemic sexual violence in Vietnam.
Ms, Nguyen has led a tragic life. Both she and her mother were raped and impregnated by South Korean soldiers. After her mother passed away, Ms. Nguyen raised her mother’s son alongside her own family, fled an abusive husband, and started a new life in rural Vietnam. Her life has not been easy, but the decision to apologize to her should be.
On Thursday, I am honored to speak on behalf of Ms. Nguyen and the thousands of women like her during an event hosted by Voices of Vietnam at the National Press Club. This event is the best chance yet to bring the world’s attention to what happened to these women and their families.
It’s time to lift the veil of silence and allow those violated women – only 800 of whom are estimated to be alive today – to share their stories.
The United States has a great history of looking back in history, bearing witness to our mistakes, and atoning for what happened. It is precisely this that has made our country a beacon of hope and freedom around the world.
President Park should take advantage of the opportunity she has been presented to acknowledge the suffering of these innocent women, make a full apology for what happened, and to begin to work to make it right.
Republican Norm Coleman represented Minnesota in the U.S. Senate from 2003-2009. During his six years in the Senate, he served on the the Foreign Relations Committee as Chair of the Western Hemisphere and ranking member of the Near East subcommittees. Senator Coleman currently serves as a board member of the National Endowment for Democracy, and on the Advisory Council for the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition.
VIETNAM WAR RAPE AND ASSAULT VICTIMS CALL FOR APOLOGY FROM KOREAN PRESIDENT PARK GEUN-HYE
(Survivors of wartime assaults call on President Park to Atone for South Korea’s systemic rape and sexual assault of thousands of Vietnamese women during the Vietnam War)
VOICES OF VIETNAM
Washington, Oct. 15, 2015/PRNewswire-USNewswire/– Voices of Vietnam, an organization dedicated to raising awareness about Vietnamese women who were raped and sexually assaulted by South Korean troops during the Vietnam War, today announces that Vietnamese survivors of rape and sexual assault at the hands of South Korean soldiers during the Vietnam War today sent a letter to Republic of Korea President Park Geun-hye calling for an apology for crimes committed against them.
“We write you today because we fear that our stories will be forgotten. Decades have passed without a formal apology, acknowledgement, or reparations from your Government. Even so, the Government of Vietnam recently signed a trade agreement between our two countries, binding our futures while ignoring our shared painful past,” their letter stated.
“We and our sisters across the country, and our thousands of children and grandchildren face many challenges today, including in securing an education and finding work, and receiving the support of basic social services. Our experiences and struggles have been rejected for more than four decades by the people and government of Korea.”
“We survivors and Lai Dai Han also want to look ahead. While we are old, we want to have hope for the futures of children and grandchildren. We urge you to issue a sincere and deep apology for the crimes committed against us and our families and to consider reparations for the decades of hardship we have faced. With that, we wish to move forward with the dignity of recognition, and the support of those in a position to take responsibility.”
One signatory of the letter, Nguyen Thi Bach Tuyet started a petition on Change.org calling on President Park to apologize for the crimes committed against her by South Korean troops. The petition currently has over 26,000 signatures.
Co-chaired by Former Congressman Anh(Joseph) Cao of Louisiana, the first Vietnamese-American member of Congress, and Cyndi Nguyen, Executive Director of VIET New Orleans, Voices of Vietnam provides a platform for those that have spent years in silence.
＊ Why Has South Korea Still Not Apologized to the Vietnam Comfort Women?
examiner.com May 27, 2015
Tampa Business Examiner
by Chris Grasso
May 27, 2015 11:28 AM MST
This year, at the 96th anniversary of the Korean uprising against Japan in March 1, 1919, South Korean President Park Geun-hye reiterated her call for Japan to admit to the war crimes it had committed during World War Two. Yet, even as she relentlessly seeks an apology from Japan, Ms Park has conveniently ignored the fact that during the Vietnam War, Korean troops raped, assaulted and barbarically slaughtered thousand of Vietnam comfort women. Ms. Park cannot escape blame and claim unverified reports. Why South Korea still refuses to apologize to the Vietnam comfort women is not as mysterious as it seems.
Documents from the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) show irrefutable proof of South Korea’s abuses and wrongdoings during that period. Noriyuki Yamaguchi, then Washington bureau chief of the Tokyo Broadcasting System, mentioned in an article he wrote that in July 2014, the archives revealed a letter from the US military command stationed in Ho Chi Minh City (then Saigon) to Gen. Chae Myeong-sin, the military commander of South Korea in Vietnam. The letter referred to the illegal diversion of US supplies to South Korea, acts of prostitution in a supposedly “welfare center” where Vietnamese women were working, and US troops using that center for a $38 fee per visit.
The above report is only one of many accounts of South Korea’s atrocities towards the Vietnamese people during the war. Elderly survivors have recounted their own horror stories of the sex slavery and massacres they went through at that time. In 2001, recognizing the veracity of the reports, then South Korean President Kim Dae-jung met with Vietnam President Tran Duc Luong and offered a direct apology for South Korea’s acts on the Vietnamese people during the war.
But the day after Kim’s message of apology, Park gein-hye, then deputy leader of the Grand National Party, the opposition party at the time, criticized Kim’s statement, saying it “drove a state through the honer of South Korea.” Looking back, it was an omen of things to come if she should lead the country someday.
Seventy years and several apologies later, South Korean officials are still pressing Japan over the WW2 comfort women issue. Like an infant fixated on a vendetta, South Korea’s sense of entitlement is such that no amount of compensation or apology will satisfy them. Or is it really a simple case of overblown egomania? Old and new historical events might provide clues.
In a case of karmic retribution for South Korea, the Vietnam comfort women issue has been brought to international awareness 40 years after the war ended. To recall, in 1991 Kim Hak-soon was the first Korean comfort woman living in South Korea to give a testimony about her alleged experience under the control of Japanese soldiers. It triggered a barrage of angry reactions against Japan and put the country under scrutiny for the reparation and atonement it should give to its victims. Now it is South Korea facing the very same situation. Long before the Vietnam comfort women came out and identified themselves, they already knew about their own atrocities but, through cunning and clever manipulation, managed to keep it under the radar of the mainstream media.
It took a visit to Vietnam by Yoon Mi-hyang in March to uncover the grim truth about the sex enslavement of Vietnam’s women by Korean and American troops. Yoon is president of the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, the non-profit organization formed to look into alleged crimes against women in Asia during World War Two, many of them were Koreans. In 2012, the council had set up the Butterfly Fund and extended their mission to help other women victims of war. Congo was the first country they identified. Little did they know that in Vietnam, they would find out about the horrors that their own countrymen, the Korean soldiers, had perpetrated.
Another recent incident that has put Pres. Park in a negative light is the Sewol ferry disaster. On April 16, 2014, the South Korean ferry Sewol, carrying 476 passengers and crew, among them 325 high school students, was on its way from Incheon to Jeju island when it sank, killing more than 300 people, mostly the students. To date, nine are still missing. It was rumored that Pres. Park was nowhere to be found and she was with a former political aide said to be married then, Japanese journalist Tatsuya Kato, chief of Sankei Shimbun’s Seoul bureau, was singled out for printing this piece of information and defaming Ms. Park. He was charged and indicted. This incident has raised howls from international journalists amid concerns on press freedom in South Korea.
Park’s handling of the Sewol ferry disaster was widely criticized. In the seven hours leading to the disaster, she received 18 reports and her only response were two orders that were standard operating procedures. It was the committee secretary who acted as spokesperson before Ms. Park could face the public herself. The investigation into the botched rescue efforts, the cause of the sinking and the violation of safety rules have been assailed by the victim’s families as being controlled by Park’s government. Add to that her unfulfilled promise to raise the ferry from the bottom of the sea. At the first anniversary of the sinking, the families refused to meet the president and promised to stage regular protests.
PARK’S STRATEGY TO GAIN SUPPORT AND POPULARITY
Recent polls show Park’s public support dropping from a low of 29% to a high of 46% from the pre-accident 70 percent. In her bid to regain her popularity in the local and international community, she must portray her nation as a victim. And the most convenient issue is a social one that targets the “bleeding hearts” of open wounds from WW2 and stoke up nationalism via anti-Japan rhetoric and propaganda. Here, the Korean comfort women fit the bill. Certainly, Japan has owned up to its’ share of the blame when it comes to WWS war crimes. From 1965 to 2010, its Ministers, Cabinet officials and most significantly Emperors have made at least 14 apologies to South Korea alone, not counting the 1995 Murayama and 1993 Kono statements. It put up the Asian Women’s Fund to give monetary compensation to the comfort women in various countries, which all accepted but South Korea refused to accept. On the domestic front, Park has been successful. Polls show that 57.4% of respondents support not holding summit talks with Tokyo until yet another full apology from Japan is given. In the United States, officials and diplomats are divided. Dr. Robert L. Shapiro, a former adviser on economic affairs, sent a video message to Pres. Park stating his concern over her country’s failure to forge better ties with Japan and her government’s curtailment of press freedom. under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, Wendy R. Sherman was more direct, citing Park’s desire for cheap applause by putting Japan in a bad light for propaganda’s sake alone.
Another controversial issue between South Korea and Japan is over the Liancourt Rocks. Known as Dokdo in Korea and takeshima in Japan, the two countries have been disputing the territorial jurisdiction of the islands, composed of two main islets and 35 smaller rocks. These islets are valued for their rich fishing grounds and production of natural gas.
The background behind ownership of these islands is confusing. South Korea has been administering them since 1954 but Japan’s legal basis of possession dates back to 1904. To put an end to the dispute, Japan has suggested three times (in 1954, 1962 and 2012) that the matter be taken to the international Court of Justice, but this was rejected by South Korea each time.
South Korea hopes that the US will back them in this matter and an opinion post in the Korea Herald recently criticized its’ own government’s futile brinkmanship. Political analysts are not inclined to think this will lead to any serious actions, militarily speaking or that the US will take sides. Both Japan and South Korea are powerful Asian allies of the United states and showing favoritism would be detrimental to it’s position. But Park Hwee-rhak, a political science professor at Kookmin University in Seoul says Japan is more important to America in its policy towards Asia because of its economic power, military technologies and its capacity to keep China in check over its ambitious expansion plans.
COMFORT WOMEN MEMORIALS AND RESOLUTIONS SPRING UP IN THE US
Some US politicians have been quick to cash in on the comfort women issue. When House Resolution 121 sponsored by Rep. Michael Honda of Silicon Valley, Calf., was passed in 2007, it was a go-signal for politicians to cater to the wishes of the South Korean community in their electoral areas. In the guise of advancing public awareness to the injustice done to South Korean women, resolutions and statues of comfort women have been put up in cities around the united states. Local Korean-American organizations in the area applied pressure on the officials to yield. These particular “voting areas” have a large community of Korean-Americans who can swing votes when elections come around.
On August 2014, the Fullerton City Council approved a resolution recognizing the Korean comfort women. In New Jersey, State Senate passed a resolution to the same effect.
The first comfort women monument in the US was put up in Palisades Park, NJ in 2010. In 2012, another one was erected in Veterans Memorial in Eisenhower Park, Nassau County, NY. In March 2013, a memorial was opened in Hackensack’s Bergen County, NJ and in July 2013, in Glendale Central Park, Glendale, Calf., a statue of a young girl representing a comfort women was unveiled. In August 2014, a statue was put up in Southfield, Michigan. There are plans for another statue to be put in Maryland.
The comfort women monuments binge-building has recently spread to Canada, with a well know political blogger calling it “a giant scam whose goal is to alienate Japan from the Western powers.” The city of Burnaby in British Columbia is in the process of studying a proposal to put up a comfort woman statue in the city.
With the Vietnam comfort women coming out into public consciousness, can the US expect a deluge of similar memorials installed in the cities and parks anytime soon? And will South Korea protest against them as the Japanese did over the Korean comfort women monuments? The truth is that they won’t, as the Vietnamese communities in the US hold far less political sway and the US itself would rather forget the Vietnam War.
THE ATROCITIES IN THE VIETNAM WAR
Just as the Japanese had their Comfort Women, South Korea also created brothels with Vietnam comfort women for their and the American troops’ carnal pleasure. Numbering 5,000 to 30,000, stories about them are not easy to come by, thanks to the cloud of secrecy that South Korea shrouded them with.
The massacres that the Korean military committed during the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese took about 9,000 lives, not counting the living survivors who had no more lives to speak of. From that time until 2000 when more liberal administration took over in South Korea, it was taboo to talk about their participation in the war. In June 2002, the US National Archives and Records Administration declassified documents about the Vietnam War and the massacres at Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat, Hoan Chau, and Phuoc My were made public. There are also the 1966 massacres at Tay Vinh that saw 1,200 civilians being slaughtered and at Go Dai with 380 people rounded up and killed. These mass slayings were all done in the same manner, The Ha My account is an example of the way the South Korean Army and Marines butchered and killed innocent men, women and children without remorse.
A first-hand account from Pamtihoa, survivor of the Ha My massacre is reprinted in The Hankyoreh. It shows the trickery and brutality of the South Korean soldiers towards the Vietnamese. In March 1965, the 3rd US Marine amphibious force landed in Da Nang, Vietnam and took over Ho Ah Bang and Di En Ban. In December 1967, the 5th regiment of the USMC handed over the Con Ninh base to the 2nd Marine brigade of South Korea, called the Blue Dragons.
The people of Ha My who had been transferred to Con Ninh base went back to their village, as life was hard at the base. Whether the Korean Marines permitted them or not is not clear. But they did provide the village people with food and supplies and the villagers returned the favor by giving them local delicacies. But, to their horror a month later, the nice Korean soldiers turned into monsters. It was on the morning that they came, entered the village with their tanks and armored vehicles and moved in three different directions. Then they gathered the villagers in three different locations to listen to a speech from the Korean commander while the soldiers gave candies to the children.
After the speech, the commander walked away and, after a few steps, made a hand gesture. In an instant, M60 machine guns and grenade launchers came out of hiding from the woods and opened fire on the shocked villagers. A total of 135 people were killed. Pamhitoa survived but lost both feet. The dead were a ghastly sight – brains coming out of head, internal organs spilling out of bodies, decapitated limbs. Along with a few survivors, Pamhitoa buried the dead in shallow holes they had dug up. But the next day, the Korean soldiers returned with D-7 bulldozers, dug up the graves and crushed all the dead bodies.
THE VIETNAM COMFORT WOMEN’S STORIES
Unlike South Korea under Pres. Park, the Vietnam government advises its citizenry to put the past behind them and move on to the future. But, if only to make Ms. Park realize her inconsistency and how the resolution of war issues lies in her own hands, the Vietnam comfort women must be made known in the same manner as the Koreans want their stories to be shared. Surviving Vietnamese women speak of serial rapes several times a day, brutal sexual assaults and killing them after the rapes. One woman who was nine months pregnant had her stomach slit open and her entrails along with her baby hanging out.
Korean comfort women survivors Kim Bok-dong and Gil Won-ok as well as the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan have called on the South Korean government to acknowledge the country’s wrongdoings and atone for them by way of an official apology and compensation. It was an emotional moment and an eye opener at the House of Sharing last April when Yoo Hee-nam, a comfort woman for the Japanese army met with Nguyen Tan Lan (64) and Nguyen Thi Thanh (55), massacre survivors.
What makes the Vietnam comfort women issue worse are the consequences of the rapes are the children born out of these barbaric acts – called Lai Dai Han, a term for mixed blooded children who are viewed as contemptible and shunned by society. There are about 5,000 to 30,000 of them, unacknowledged by their Korean fathers.
In fairness, Korean soldiers were not alone in raping the Vietnamese women. From August 1964 to May 7, 1975, there were more than 9 million military men who served in the Vietnam War. Accounts and research have proven that American GIs also participated in the rapes. But they were kept hidden and if they did reach army court-martial trials, convictions were few and sentences were light. The US government cannot deny that it shares accountability for the war crimes in the Vietnam War along with South Korea. While the official stand is always not to condone such acts, it’s a different matter out in the battlefields. Commanders and generals turn a blind eye to the truth. But the war ended decades ago and the time has come for both countries to face their responsibilities and cease the hypocritical finger pointing at Japan.
＊The Scars of War: Vietnam Comfort Women
NationofChange, April 9, 2015
Author: Lolita Di
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While there has been light shed on the issue of comfort women used by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War 2, not much has been discussed about the use of Vietnamese comfort women by South Korea.
During the Vietnam War (late 1960’s – 1970’s) South Korea sent troops to Vietnam in an attempt to keep South Vietnam free from communism. I was reported later that many South Korean troops raped Vietnamese women and committed atrocities such as massacring farmers and aged people, and many others were forced into working as prostitutes for the South Korean soldiers. Many of these women would then later become pregnant and after these mixed Korean-Vietnamese children were born they were shunned by Vietnamese society and their soldier fathers returned to South Korea never to be seen or heard from again.
The plight of these women was lost to history and not discussed until the late 1990’s when many of the victims began to speak out against the Vietnam and South Korean governments and demand recognition and compensation. To date the South Korean government has done little to acknowledge the issue but has continued to pursue further financial compensation from Japan for their own comfort women survivors and some say that actions have become hypocritical and they are using the issue as their own political tool. In fact, South Korea orchestrated with Korean-American’s politically-driven campaign in the U.S. continent.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND COMPENSATION OF COMFORT WOMEN
In 1973 Japanese author Kakou Senda(千田夏光）published the first account of comfort women titled Military Comfort Women which detailed the Japanese army’s involvement in establishing comfort stations. The book was roundly criticized and attacked as being false, but it led to research into the issue. The Kono Statement of 1993, which was released by then Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japan, Yohei Kono acknowledged the involvement of the military in the establishment of comfort stations and the coercion of the comfort women.
As a result, Japan set up the Asian Women’s Fund to compensate the victims of this practice partly funded by the Japanese government. Korea had also demanded compensation from the government and received $800 million in aid and loan packages over ten years. The South Korean government has been publicly supportive of the thousands of comfort women taken from their country and homes during the wars, even going after Japan for a second compensation. But history has shown that the Korean government was complicit in the use of comfort women.
KOREA’S USE OF COMFORT WOMEN
In large part due to testimony from survivors of the comfort station system, we now know that Korea established their own comfort women system during the Korean War (1950-1953). The Korean military set up two types of comfort stations — U.N. Comfort Stations for U.N. soldiers and Special Comfort stations for Korean soldiers.
Many Korean women were forced to work in these comfort stations and many of those women were married and had children to support.
Husbands were drafted into service and they had no other means to support their families. In many cases these comfort women were trucked to the front lines to service South Korean soldiers.
During the Vietnam War, South Korea sent troops to aid the anti-communist forces and while establishing their own comfort stations.
Initially, South Korean soldiers raped many Vietnamese women then both the South Korean and Vietnamese military began to force Vietnamese women to work in comfort stations. In many cases children were produced as a result of the rapes and forced into sexual slavery as VIETNAM COMFORT WOMEN.
These children are referred to as lai Daihan. The term is specific to children born of a South Korean father and a Vietnamese mother. It is unclear how many of these children were born, but estimates range in the tens of thousands. Unfortunately these children were ostracized by the Vietnamese and stigmatized because they were a product of rape and forced sexual encounters.
South Korea had set up a multi-operation comfort system for soldiers so they could use these women. The first was a “spacial comfort unit” named ‘T’uksu Wiandae’, and it operated from multiple stations. The second operations were mobile units for use in various locations. These mobile units visited the barracks of the soldiers. The third operation were prostitutes who worked in private brothels that were hired by the military. The women that were kidnapped and forced into this issue were from all over Asia.
The story of the VIETNAM COMFORT WOMEN and their shunned children only came to light in the 1990s and 2000s as South Korea had increasing financial investments in Vietnam. But even though South Korea has demanded compensation from Japan — twice — for the Korean survivors of comfort stations and has publicly supported these women, they have yet to acknowledge their own establishment of comfort stations, both in their own country during the Korean War and the use them with Vietnamese women during the Vietnam War.
In addition to the establishment of comfort stations in Vietnam and the rampant rape of Vietnamese women, the South Korean military was also responsible for some other war crimes in the country. One particular incident involved the massacre of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children, Phong Ni and Phong Nhat in 1968. Additionally, the Korean government publicly admonished the United States military for producing and then leaving behind many children during the Korean War, but they have continued to ignore the children produced through rape and sexual slavery of VIETNAM COMFORT WOMEN.
But the Vietnamese are not unaware of the horrible treatment of these children. The term lai Daihan translates to Daihan, the Vietnamese word for Korea, and lai which implies contempt for that mixed blood.
Nationalism and racism is common among the people of Southeast Asia and this has fueled the shunning of these children both by the Vietnamese and Koreans.
THE LEGACY OF THE VIETNAM COMFORT WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN
While Korea continues to go after Japan and use the comfort women issue as a political tool they still ignore the victims of their own past crimes during conflicts within the region.
Former South Korean soldiers and civilian workers stationed in Vietnam during the war have continued to deny the existence of their children as has the government of South Korea. Some estimates put the number of Vietnamese comfort women at around 5,000 to 30,000 but no one knows an exact number. and they cannot be easily verified because of the secretive nature of the government.
The issue has largely remained a secret and information from the Vietnam War period has been hard to come by, though there is documentation that the Viet Cong did report to the Korean military on the huge numbers of rapes and kidnappings of VIETNAMESE COMFORT WOMEN by Korean troops during the war.
With more and more Korean survivors, among others, coming forward and giving testimony to what they suffered, the hope is that the truth about VIETNAMESE COMFORT WOMEN and their children will eventually come to light.
Kim Bok-dong, a Korean survivor of the Japanese comfort stations, along with the Korean Council for Military Sexual Slavery(Women Drafted), who have helped protests every Wednesday in front of the Japanese embassy in Seoul, recently met with victims of sexual slavery and violence committed by South Korean soldiers in Vietnam. The council members want the issue of all comfort women brought to light, in addition to recognition by the governments who allowed and encouraged the practice.
In 2001 at a summit meeting with the Vietnamese government, Kim Dae-jung, then South Korean president, expressed regret for the abuses committed by South Korean soldiers against the Vietnamese during the war, but many say the statement didn’t go far enough. Kim Bok-dong said after the meeting with Vietnamese survivors, “The government should resolve the wrongdoing its countrymen committed. it cannot ignore these acts.”
But while statues have been erected to commemorate the lives and suffering of comfort women at the hands of the Japanese and protest have been held to pressure Japan to take official responsibility for their actions, the plight of comfort women used by South Korea, both during the Korean War and Vietnam War has largely gone ignored.
The united States government has gotten involved in pressuring Japan, as has the U.N. Human Rights Commission, but the former comfort women from Korean and Vietnam wars are seeking Korea to also step up and take responsibility for their own actions, even as they call loudly for Japan to do the same.
VIETNAMESE COMFORT WOMEN AND THE U.S. MILITARY
Prostitution was gig business during the Vietnam War and many American servicemen took advantage of this service. Thousands of women worked out of camps and bars that sprung up around U.S. military bases. Many of these women got pregnant and the resulting children — some estimates put the number around 50,000 — were shunned and ostracized, much like the children of mixed Korean and Vietnamese descent.
These children are called ‘bui doi’ which translates to “dirt of life.” the women, too, were shunned and forced to live a life of poverty.
Considering the history of comfort women used by both the Japanese and Korean military, and the coercion of many Korean women into forced prostitution, one wonders how many of these prostitutes were also coerced. It may not have been done by the Vietnamese government directly, but if prostitution is illegal in the country, then the government turned a blind eye. it is believed they may have even encouraged the practice to generate income.
Many of the thousands of women working as prostitutes during the Vietnam War were held against their will by pimps and lured with the promise of good-paying, respectable jobs so they could support their families in a country torn apart by war. they would never see most of the money, if any, paid to their pimps or bar owners by the American soldiers. In some cases women were injected with silicone to make them more shapely so that the American soldiers would feel more “at home” with the Asian women.
While the U.S. military did not officially condone the practice of prostitution around military bases, they didn’t do anything to stop it, either.
In many cases, soldiers on leave would go to surrounding countries where a similar set-up existed, such as in Thailand. Many of these hubs of prostitution were referred to as ‘rest & recreation’ sites. So even among the U.S. military, the practice was unofficially encouraged. If the men were kept happy, they followed orders and stayed in line.
And there were many instances of rape by soldiers during the war, among the other atrocities committed against the civilian population. It seems there has always been the misguided perception that allowing prostitution or establishing comfort stations would reduce rape, but that is a fallacy, as is the idea that the spread of sexually transmitted disease can somehow be controlled.
Government also turn a blind eye and even encourage prostitution with the belief that it can elevate the socioeconomic status of the country. By permitting either system, governments allow the rape, abuse, and exploitation of women.
Unfortunately, many governments have drawn a line of distinction between the comfort women of World War 2 and the prostitutes in the wars that followed. They cite that fact that prostitutes were paid, so they couldn’t possibly have been forced. Whether forced through kidnapping, lured with the promise of a job, or coerced due to financial constraints, it is still exploitation of women.
What these governments refuse to acknowledge is that the women who worked as prostitutes were cheated out of any money and many were forced and held against their will.
While many have pressured the Japanese government to acknowledge and atone for their use of comfort women, many of these same governments should acknowledge their roles in the exploitation of these women. It’s time for Korea, Vietnam, and the United States to take responsibility for their actions and their encouragement of abuse.
＊Why Has South Korea Still Not Apologized to the Vietnam Comfort Women? なぜ韓国（政府）はベトナム人慰安婦たちに未（いま）だに謝罪をしないのか？
Tampa Business Examiner, May 27, 2015
By Chris Grasso